Dangerous Good Transport

The transportation of dangerous materials on public roads. Depending on the classification of the goods the transport needs to be registered, has to follow restrictions about route and time or is even escorted by private or public security forces.

Data Privacy

Data privacy constitutes the fundamental right of persons to decide about the usage (recoding, storage, sharing, exploiting) of their data. In the future data privacy might become a human right and is already now treated on that level (especially in public IT systems).

Dead Reckoning (DR)

A traditional navigational method for estimating a new position by advancing a known earlier position using course and distance or speed and time travelled since then. In GNSS context the course and distance/speed information is provided by external sensors and combined with the GNSS position via sensor fusion.

Declarative Scheme

The declarative scheme can be conceived as a ticketing scheme, in which the road users declare there wish to travel before commencing the journey. It serves as an alternative to the automatic scheme. A non-automatic tolling frontend that requires the user to actively book a ticket prior to a trip and also can be used to book tickets ex-post in case grace periods are granted or a toll dodger was caught.

Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC)

A technology to communicate data on short ranges with high relative velocities. Can be implemented using radio frequency (microwave systems) or optical infrared (IR) carriers.

Detailed Trip Statements (DTS)

A list of detailed vehicle trips, typically issued in addition to an invoice. For data privacy reasons the generation of DTS could be restricted for users that have opted in. Detailed trip statements might be produced from TDRs or CDRs.

Detection Rate

The fraction of all correctly detected toll events.

Deterrence Function

The dependence of the total (intentional or unintentional) non-compliancy rate from enforcement rate and height of fines.

Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)

This type of solution can be used to improve the accuracy of GPS measurements in a local area. Using a "reference" GPS receiver that is set up on a precisely known location, a DGPS solution calculates its position based on satellite signals and compares this location to the known location. Within a local area DGPS can provide more accurate corrections than other solutions like SBAS.


The act of transferring money to toll receivers including statements of composition (lists or aggregations of all covered toll transactions).

Drawing Limit

The ETC operator determines the drawing-limit of the registered road user from his Credit Limit. The drawing-limit is used to calculate the Remaining Limit.


Person driving the vehicle that is liable to pay toll. If he isn't identical to road user he is an assistant to the road user.


Reminds a road user of overdue payables and to request payment.