Indicates the kind of OBU which is not permanently and fixed inside the vehicle. In contrast to the "fixedOBU", it is easier to install by non-expert personal in less time.


Electronic Fee Collection. Synonymously used for ETC especially within DSRC Systems.


European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service


Electromagnetic compatibility. Branch of electrical sciences which study the unintentional generation propagation and reception of electromagnetically energy. Two main different issues: a) Emission b) susceptibility/immunity issues

Emission Category

Emission categories/standards are sets of requirements defining the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions


Mobile enforcement units


The process of identification and prosecution non-compliant infrastructure users (intentional or unintentional toll dodgers). Non-compliancy can be caused in many different aspects (payment, parameter declaration, etc.).

Enforcement Authority

An authority with the right to flag down suspicious vehicles and to collect additional penalty fees in case a road user violated the ETC scheme. The enforcement authority is also assumed to be the external system that might want to set vehicle specifics on a [black list].

Enforcement Frontend

Part of the enforcement system that is located in the field (at the roads).

Enforcement Information System (EIS)

Sub component of Card & Communication Management System, responsible for communication between CAS and Enforcement System

Enforcement Operator

The entity responsible for prosecution on the basis of violation information. CESARE III: The organisation responsible for the compliance with laws rules and regulations according to the local ETC scheme. The Toll Charger can be the Enforcement operator as well.

Enforcement Unit

General Term for road side elements of the enforcement system, like static gantries or mobile units.


Ephemeris data is a set of parameters that can be used to accurately calculate the position of a GNSS satellite at a particular point in time. It describes the path that the satellite is following as it orbits earth. The ephemerides take the form of predicted positions at a number of specific times during a given period. GNSS satellites include ephemeris data in the signals they transmit to GNSS receivers. To accurately calculate the position, ephemeris data received from GNSS satellites is only usable for a limited time (a few hours or less), since they are usually broadcast only two hours in advance of the epoch for which they were calculated. Up-to-date data is needed to minimise errors that result from minor variations in a satellite's orbit. Some receivers support predicted ephemeris received from other sources than GNSS satellites and which are valid for longer periods. At the present time, the use of predictions of ephemeris of up to 14 days is possible.


Stationary enforcement units


Electronic Toll Collection

ETC Operator

The organisation that collects the toll (and the transit data concerning the toll) and is operating the ETC infrastructure for the account/on behalf of a Transport Service Provider, a Road Authority or road operator.

ETC System

Contractual legal and technical framework and all components which are need for collection toll.

ETC Violation

The act of circulation on a network without being in the possession of an OBU considered as valid in relation to the system if: a) the OBU is mandatory on the network or the lane being used b) Pre payment by another means of payment was not made.

European Electronic Toll Service (EETS)

The European effort to standardise and structure future tolling solutions and to allow legal, commercial and technical interoperability. Up to now some technical issues are settled (standards available or upcoming). From the legal and commercial framework only a fundamental high level blueprint is available and details are still under discussion or unresolved. One main feature of the EETS paradigm is the split-up of toll operators into multiple companies representing certain roles where each role (with the exception of the authorities) can be realised in a competitive free market approach.

Evidential Data

Information collected by an enforcement unit about an enforcement activity with a suspected toll dodger

Exempted Vehicles

Vehicles that are not subject to tolling, either identified by an explicit list of licence plate numbers, by patterns for licence plate number matching or by other detectable features (transponder, etc.). Note that typically certain exempted vehicles (belonging to politicians and governmental agencies) must not leave any traces in the system.

Exemption List

A list of exempted vehicles. The enforcement (as well as the tolling) frontend needs to implement a filter to identify and eliminate data for Exempted Vehicles in a safe way.