Term for a road overhead assembly on which ETC components are mounted (e.g. enforcement components)

Geo Fencing

A method to generate toll events by detecting the vehicle entering or leaving a certain area defined by its circumference. This is accomplished by comparing the vehicles position (from GNSS measurements) with a geometrical coordinate representation of the circumference (usually a polygon, spline or any other model). For stable results (vehicles driving along the perimeter) a certain hysteresis fringe is necessary.

Geo Object

A geometrical or geographical object. Might be both - the real object or its model used in a map representation.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

A not very sharply defined term used for IT systems that deal with geographic information in general or that are able to map and render (e.g. statistical) data on a geographical pattern. GIS are systems used to define and manage toll objects (including publishing, documentation and version management functions) as well as to overlay statistical data (traffic information, detection rates, etc.) on geographic maps.

Geometric transformation

A process in which an image is stretched differentially so as to change its internal geometry is said to have undergone geometric transformation or rectification (rectification: a transformation specifically refers to the process of projecting an image from its plane onto another plane by translation, rotation, and/or scale change)


The business object derived from process containing GNSS receiver position and orientation parameters as well as their quality information.


Information that relates raster cells or vector/CAD elements to a specified coordinate system or map projection to establish the relationship between page coordinates on a planar map and known real world coordinates. ... Geographic calibration may be established when creating an object (like extracting an image map from a Landsat or SPOT satellite image). Calibration can also be added to an existing object either by entering control points or by associating it with some calibrated object (like overlaying a calibrated vector to calibrate a raster).

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

A technology that allows vehicle based receiver to measure their position in a reference system by acquiring signals broadcasted by satellites.

GNSS satellite signal

From satellite received raw data needed for calculation of geoposition.

GNSS sensor

GNSS sensor for receiving GNSS satellite signal.

GNSS time stamp

Satellite time stamp derived from GNSS data.


General Packet Radio Service


Global Positioning System

Grace Period

A time (mostly stated in a contract) in which a late payment or performance may be made without penalty.


Global System for Mobile communication


An inertial sensor measuring turn rates along a defined axis. Used in inertial navigation (IN) and dead reckoning (DR). Not to be confused with gyroscopes (devices including a fast rotator).