Manual Enforcement

An enforcement frontend system that is based on manual interaction; possibly implementing the full offence processing including payment. Manual enforcement can accomplish checks for tariff parameters that are not automatically detectable and can not be looked up in independent registers.

Map data

Aggregation of Map objects.

Map Matching

A method to map a given trajectory (a sequence of position coordinates) to a sequence of identified geo objects under the hypothesis that a vehicle is located on a set - typically a routable network - of these geo objects. The set of geo objects is called map. Map matching can also be used to improve the accuracy of GNSS positioning.

Map Object

Element of a (digital) road network model such as a road section

Map Reduction

A method to reduce the information stored in maps to the minimum that is required to fulfil a certain task (like identifying relevant geo objects in tolling systems based on map matching).

Map Tile

A sector of a large map used to segment the map data for transmission and storage. Map tiles typically do not overlap (sectors might) and are identified by their geographical coordinates.

Mobile Enforcement Unit

An enforcement unit using electronic devices to select suspicious vehicles but with the possibility to manually inspect the road user and the corresponding vehicle. For example, this could be an enforcement vehicle with the equipment to communicate with the OBU of a nearby vehicle and to obtain information about tickets etc. as well as the mobile part of a stationary enforcement unit.


Both a type of road and a classification or designation/dedication